When it comes to determining the temperature in space, it is important to consider that most approximations are dependent on what makes up space. From the earth’s point of view, outer space is that portion of the universe that starts from about 100 kilometers or 62 miles above sea level. If we are talking about the void among planets, galaxies and star systems, the temperature average is about 2.725 Kelvin, -454.72°F or 270.4°C. This temperature is just a little above absolute zero at -459.67°F or -273.15°C which is the coldest possible temperature at which all motion of all matter stops. Just outside of Pluto’s orbit, the temperature is about 35 to 40 Kelvin because of the sun and although this is still very cold, it is still far from the extremely cold temperatures found in deep space that is not reached by any sunlight.
How is Temperature Measured?
It is quite complicated when measuring temperature in space since it only becomes significant when heat is transferred efficiently from one body to another. The temperature of particles in space can be very high but because their density is so low, there is very minimal heat exchange occurring. It is possible for these particles to be millions of Kelvin degrees in temperature but this is very difficult to determine because they almost never collide with each other and therefore the theory of heat exchange doesn’t happen. This is why the temperature in space has something to do with the movement and collision of particles that allows gaining and losing of energy.
Because of this concept, scientists use Planck’s law which mentions how every object in the universe sends out radiation based on its temperature in order to determine the temperature in space. By applying this formula on the amount of radiation emitted from space, it was determined that the temperature in space is approximately 2.725 Kelvin. Different temperatures can be found in various parts of space and the Milky Way galaxy, where the planet earth is located, has been identified to be somewhat warmer compared to other portions of the universe.
Factors Affecting Temperature
We have to remember that human bodies are comprised of empty space and that space is found everywhere. Therefore, when discussing temperatures in any specific part of space, one has to include objects that are visible to the naked eye. The effects of dark matter and dark energy can also be a factor since both consist 96% of the entire universe.